Small white spots appear on the tongue in the presence of catarrhal stomatitis, which can be allergic, systemic and trauma induced in the case of herpetic infection and Candidiasis. The last mentioned two conditions obviously indicate to immune deficiency (chronic or impermanent). The treatment of these pathologies cannot be exclusively local. Complete recovery is only possible through the elimination of the ultimate cause. To do this, it is required to undergo thorough clinical examination.
Difference of white dots on the tongue in the presence of catarrhal stomatitis
Catarrhal stomatitis is a disease, which is characterized by the occurrence of focal inflammation of the oral mucous membrane in general and the tongue in particular. It can occur under the influence of the following four factors:
- Allergic reactions;
- Disturbance of microcirculation;
There are also several etiological variants of punctuate rash, such as connective tissue dermatosis (autoimmune diseases) or work-related intoxications. Externally, these subtypes of the disease can be extremely different. However, taking into account the most common diseases and their symptoms, small white spots on the tongue are considered to be the distinctive feature of catarrhal stomatitis. They can appear in the form of islets of fur or bubbles, filled with liquid – depending on the etiology of the disease.
Usually, allergy develops during the first days after the intake of the reactive agent. It can be expressed not only in the form of stomatitis, but also in the form of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and other inflammatory processes. General treatment: elimination of contact with the incitant of allergy and hyposensitizing medication.
Disturbance of microcirculation develops in the setting of diabetes mellitus, severe cardiac pathology, gastrointestinal diseases. In such cases, white spots on the tongue are considered to be an alerting “indicator”, warning about decompensation. White sites of inflammation, not surrounded by a red band, like in infectious stomatitis, constitute a specific symptom of this type of eruption.
Since such diseases, as diabetes mellitus, not only affect capillary blood flow, but also cause prominent immune deficiency, catarrhal stomatitis can be complicated by the overlay of an infectious component, particularly fungal infection.
Local treatment of this variant of the disease is little effective. In the first instance, it is required to compensate the underlying disease.
Trauma induced stomatitis can be provoked by thermal, chemical and mechanical factors. There are multiple cases, which involve occurrence of small white spots on tongue in the sites of constant contact with foreign bodies, such as crownwork or dental prosthesis.
Small white spots on the tongue, induced by herpetic virus
Herpetic stomatitis, like any other infectious process, is accompanied by fever and disturbance of general well-being. At the same time, it is possible to observe vesicular eruption on the lips and the nasal mucous membrane. Herpetic virus commonly resides in the human organism, causing no specific symptoms and showing up only in the setting of rapid decrease of the patient’s immune system. Thus, this pathology often recurs following a flu or other acute respiratory diseases.
The «band» of red inflammation around the herpetic sprues is a distinct symptom of this pathology.
The treatment of acute herpetic stomatitis is a laborious and long-lasting process. It includes both antiviral therapy and general medication for the reinforcement of the immune system, as well as desensitization of the organism. Optimal course of treatment can be defined only by an immunologist, after conducting additional testing and studying the findings the examination.
Candidiasis, as the cause of white dots on the tongue
From the point of view of medicine, there are more than five forms, in which this fungal infection can develop. Classification is based on the peculiarities of the course, that the disease might take (acute or chronic), as well as on the cellular changes in the mucous membrane. In any case, it is important to know that the fungal inflammation of the tongue is a rather serious and threatening condition. Similar to herpetic infection, it testifies to the decrease of protective resources and abilities of the organism. In general, Candida fungi make part of normal microflora of the oral cavity, but only in a small number. Dysbacteriosis, induced by a certain agent, provokes their aggressive growth and regeneration.
The treatment of Candidiasis should be rather complex – massive antifungal therapy, general medication for the reinforcement of the immune system, local action.
Thus, occurrence of white dots on the tongue, often indicates to the development of a general disease or its decompensation. The treatment should by no means be limited to local action. It is required to visit a clinic and undergo an examination; since, in case of detection and elimination of the ultimate cause, stomatitis will never recur even without constant gargling and application of sprays.